Since the 9/11 – and with the Islamic State (IS – aka ISIS) – Islam has gained a very prominent place in the mind of many around the globe. What is Islam? What do Muslims believe and practice? Andy, Chris, and Steve launch into part 1 of Encountering Islam.
What is IS?
What is ‘Islamic State’? from BBC
Allah: The title used by Muslims to refer to God. Not a personal name like Yahweh.
Caliphate: A type of Islamic government led by a caliph (lit. “successor” to Muhammad).
jihad: Lit. “struggle”. Refers to the duty of Muslims to maintain the religion. Its interpretation ranges from a personal pious struggle to physical warfare.
Mecca: Muhammad’s hometown and Islam’s place of origin. Muhammad did not gain many converts when he first began his ministry as a prophet, and eventually fled to Medina in 622 AD (known as hijrah). Home to Kaaba, a pilgrimage destination and considered by many to be the holiest site in Islam.
Medina: The town to which Muhammad fled after being rejected as a prophet in his hometown of Mecca. In Medina, Muhammad gained political and military power with which he subsequently subdued Mecca.
Muhammad: The founder of Islam (570 – 632 AD). Considered by Muslims to be the final prophet to whom Allah gave his final revelation through the angel, Gabriel, which was subsequently gathered into a single volume, the Qur’an. When a person becomes a Muslim, he/she must recite the Islamic creed (“shahada“) in which Muhammad is acknowledged as Allah’s messenger.
Qur’an: The holy scripture of Islam. Composed of sayings in 114 chapters (sura), generally from the longest to the shortest. The sayings are in the form of divine address, that is, 1st-person speech by Allah.
Nelson’s Illustrated Guide to Religions by James A. Beverley
Reasoning from the Scriptures with Muslims by Ron Rhodes
Life of Muhammad: A Translation of Ibn Ishaq’s Sira by Alfred Guillaume